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Finance Archives

Register of beneficial owners

Central Register of Real Beneficiaries - OBLIGATION OF COMPANIES


The Central Register of Real Beneficiaries (CRBR) is used to process information on the actual beneficiaries of companies to prevent the use of the financial system for money laundering or terrorist financing. The provisions of the GDPR do not apply to the processing of personal data collected in CRBR. Companies that do not report their actual beneficiaries are subject to a fine of up to PLN 1 million.

Taxpayers' whitelist

White list of VAT payers


The whitelist contains the list VAT taxpayers active and exempt from VAT and VAT taxpayers to whom the head of the Tax Office has not registered, taxpayers deleted and reinstated in the VAT register.

The list allows, among others checking the status of the taxpayer according to the status on the given day of checking and the numbers of settlement accounts.

From January 1, 2020, all transactions between active VAT payers, the one-off value of which exceeds PLN 15.000,00 gross, should be settled through the settlement account, which is on the white list of VAT taxpayers.

The use of quantitative methods

The use of quantitative methods in building the investment portfolio of two companies


The aim of this study is to present selected statistical methods used in building a portfolio of shares of two companies, which is the basis for creating a multi-component portfolio. The article analyzes the rate of return of five selected listed companies over a period of six years to indicate a universal approach to investing using the fundamental portfolio theory - the Markowitz model. On the basis of analyzes of the rates of return on selected stocks in terms of profitability, risk and correlation, they were diversified and an investment portfolio was created, which was subjected to effectiveness assessment using three portfolio management quality measures. The obtained results indicate that quantitative measures ambiguously enable making the same investment decisions. However, they illustrate the market directions of investment, balancing the individual preferences of the investor.

Choice of financing sources

Selection of enterprise financing sources on the example of an investment project


The aim of this study is to present methods of selecting the sources of financing an enterprise and to indicate measures and their interpretations that support the management of warehouse management, cash and receivables policy in order to maintain the capital structure at an optimal level. For the purposes of the analysis, an investment project was used, which is a capital company operating forecast for the first 6 years. The components of equity and external capital were indicated, justifying their choice with calculations and emphasizing that these decisions should always be adjusted to the specific needs of the enterprise. The values ​​of capital in terms of risk related to debt service, maintaining liquidity, increasing market share and cost rationalization were also described. Knowing the structure and cost of capital increases goodwill by increasing the present value of net cash flows generated from the company's assets.

cash transaction limit

Lowering the limit of cash transactions

From January 01, 2017, the limit of cash transactions between enterprises referred to in art. 22 paragraph 1 of the Freedom of Business Activity Act to PLN 15.000,00.

The new rules apply for transactions concluded from January 01, 2017.